Three-dimensional reconstruction of the musculature of Cossura pygodactylata (Annelida: Cossuridae)статья

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[1] Zhadan A., Vortcepneva E., Tzetlin A. Three-dimensional reconstruction of the musculature of cossura pygodactylata (annelida: Cossuridae) // Zoologischer Anzeiger. — 2014. — Vol. 253, no. 3. — P. 181–191. The musculature of adult specimens of Cossura pygodactylata was studied by means of f-actin labelling and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Their body wall is comprised of five longitudinal muscle bands: two dorsal, two ventral and one ventromedial. Complete circular fibers are found only in the abdominal region, and they are developed only on the border of the segments. Thoracic and posterior body regions contain only transverse fibers ending near the ventral longitudinal bands. Almost-complete rings of transverse muscles, with gaps on the dorsal and ventral sides, surround the terminal part of the pygidium. Four longitudinal bands go to the middle of the prostomium and 5-14 paired dorso-ventral muscle fibers arise in its distal part. Each buccal tentacle contains one thick and two thin longitudinal muscle filaments; thick muscle fibers from all tentacles merge, forming left and right tentacle protractors rooted in the dorsal longitudinal bands of the body wall. The circumbuccal complex includes well-developed upper and lower lips. These lips contain an outer layer of transverse fibers, and the lower lip also contains inner oblique muscles going to the dorsal longitudinal bands. The branchial filament contains two longitudinal muscle fibers that do not connect with the body musculature. The parapodial complex includes strong intersegmental and segmental oblique muscles in the thoracic region only; chaetal retractors, protractors and muscles of the body wall are present in all body regions. Muscle fibers are developed in the dorsal and ventral mesenteries. One semi-circular fibre is developed on the border of each segment and is most likely embedded in the dissepiment. The intestine has thin circular fibers along its full length. The dorsal blood vessel has a strong muscle fibers that covers its anterior part, which is called the heart. It consists of short longitudinal elements forming regular rings and inner partitions. The musculature of C. pygodactylata includes some elements that are homologous with similar muscular components in other polychaetes (i.e., the body wall and most parapodial muscles) and several unique features, mostly at the anterior end. [ DOI ]

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