Sex and age-class differences in calls of Iberian red deer during rut: reversed sex dimorphism of pitch and contrasting roars from farmed and wild stagsстатья

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Дата последнего поиска статьи во внешних источниках: 28 мая 2015 г.

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[1] Sex and age-class differences in calls of iberian red deer during rut: reversed sex dimorphism of pitch and contrasting roars from farmed and wild stags / I. Volodin, V. Matrosova, E. Volodina et al. // Acta Ethologica. — 2015. — Vol. 18, no. 1. — P. 19–29. Stag rutting calls differ among subspecies of red deer Cervus elaphus. Studying sex-, age-, and subspecies-related vocal variation may highlight the forces driving this evolution. This study presents the first bioacoustical comparison of oral calls produced during the rut by Iberian red deer Cervus elaphus hispanicus stags, hinds and calves and compares the acoustics of nasal and oral calls of hinds and calves. Also, it provides the first comparison of rutting roars between farmed and wild stags. Call maximum and mean fundamental frequencies (f0max and f0mean) were higher in farmed than in wild stags. Moreover, hinds had lower f0max and f0mean compared to both farmed and wild stags. The call minimum fundamental frequency (f0min) was indistinguishable between all groups of adults, irrespective of sex, farming and nasal vs oral vocal emission. In calves, but not in hinds, oral calls had higher f0max and f0mean compared to nasal calls. The higher fundamental frequencies in farmed as compared to wild stags may have resulted from emotional arousal due to human presence at recordings or from the higher body conditions of stags reared under farm. The comparison of our results with previously published data on various subspecies of red deer suggests that there are different pathways of vocal ontogeny in Eastern and Western branches of Cervus elaphus and that the acoustics of stag and hind calls are more similar within the various subspecies than they are among the subspecies. [ DOI ]

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